Real-time Brain Assessment for Adaptive Virtual Reality Game : A Neurofeedback Approach

Hamdi Ben Abdessalem, Claude Frasson

Humans’ cognitive and affective states are constantly subject to regular and sudden changes. The origins of these changes are multiple and unpredictable. Virtual Reality (VR) game environments could represent an immersive unconstrained experimental context in which game designers could control a wide range of parameters that act on these states. In this paper, we propose to track and adapt to individuals’ frustration and excitement levels in real time while interacting with a VR environment. We developed “AmbuRun”, a VR game designed to modify the speed and the difficulty in real time. A neural agent was created to control these parameters within the game using an intervention strategy that was intended to induce appropriate modifications of the players ‘excitement and frustration level. An experimental study involving 20 participants was conducted to evaluate our neurofeedback approach. Results showed that intelligent control through neurofeedback of speed and difficulty affected excitement and frustration before and after the agent action.

The final publication is available at Springer via