Interventions to Regulate Confusion during Learning

Blair Lehman, Sidney D’Mello, Arthur Graesser

Experiences of confusion have been found to correlate with learning, particularly for learning at deeper levels of comprehension. Previously, we have induced confusion within learning environments that teach critical scientific reasoning. Confusion was successfully induced with the presentation of contradictory information and false feedback. Next, we would like to regulate experiences of confusion to increase learning. In the current paper, we propose a series of experiments that investigate potential interventions to help regulate confusion during learning. Specifically, these experiments will address the impact of feedback specificity and emotional support.

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