Understanding Procedural Knowledge for Solving Arithmetic Task by Externalization

Kazuhisa Miwa, Hitoshi Terai, Kazuya Shibayama

Students build cognitive models for solving a crypt-arithmetic task in a learning environment that enables them to formally describe various types of procedural knowledge in a group learning setting in which each student is allowed to refer to the procedural rules described by the other group members. Experimental evaluation showed that: (1) three-quarters of participants successfully constructed valid models with the system, and (2) participants learned to describe procedural knowledge more precisely not only for the training task (crypt-arithmetic task) but also for a transfer task (bug identification for a multi-column subtraction problem).

The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39583-8_1.