H. Chad Lane, Matthew J. Hays, Daniel Auerbach, Mark G. Core
We investigate the role of presence in a serious game for intercultural communication and negotiation skills by comparing two interfaces: a 3D version with animated virtual humans and sound against a 2D version using text-only interactions with static images and no sound. Both versions provide identical communicative action choices and are driven by the same underlying simulation engine. In a study, the 3D interface led to a significantly greater self-reported sense of presence, but produced significant, but equivalent learning on immediate posttests for declarative and conceptual knowledge related to intercultural communication. Log data reveals that 3D learners needed fewer interactions with the system than those in the 2D environment, suggesting they benefited equally with less practice and may have treated the experience as more authentic.
The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-13388-6_32.