This study investigates how pedagogical conversational agents can facilitate learner-learner collaborative learning during a knowledge integration task. The study focuses on (1) how knowledge integration activity can be facilitated by using multiple Pedagogical Conversational Agents (PCAs) with gaze gestures and (2) how dyad coordination influences learners’ perspective-changing processes and understanding. In a controlled experiment, dyads were accompanied by multiple PCAs programmed to facilitate learning. Two eye-trackers were used to detect the learner’s learning process and coordination. The results show that learners who received facilitation from the PCAs about integrating different perspectives performed better on the task, and if they received gaze gestures, they tended to focus on the relationship of different knowledge as well. Recurrence analysis of gaze patterns show that those who performed well using PCAs synchronized their gaze.
The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39583-8_26.